Chapter 3, the basic knowledge of mechanical watches
About sixteenth Century the beginning of the timepiece invention, originally uses gravity as the power source, this time can only be placed in a fixed place, such as hanging on the walls of buildings, the clock is tied with the chain made of iron hammer, and rotate around on the wheel; later invented by the elastic force of the spring the operation, which is now the clock spring. This timepiece considerably reduced in size, like eggs, can be installed in the pocket, which is invented by the German Nuremberg locksmith Nuremberg (Nuremberg Egg), the eggs of this table is made of parts by hand, so time-consuming, each table and are all different. It was not until the nineteenth Century that the quality of machinery was controlled by the development of machine manufacturing. So far, the names of clocks and watches are very different. Even in the same area, there are many different translations or translations, and there is no uniform regulation for clocks and watches in all the countries of the world. Therefore, the Swiss ETA movement factory first used the number to the number of Representatives, to watch in order to correct parts. But the national brand name movement is the same, but there are still differences in the structure, the code will be different. The clock is running using the lever principle, like swing back and forth like repeat, the most basic operation order by the spring, the third, and the center wheel fourth wheel, escapement wheel, a wheel, cowboys, and in situ reaction of simple harmonic motion of the balance wheel will bounce cowboys.
Diagram of spring power direction
A spring box is a force created by the curl of a steel bar to produce an elastic force. Generally speaking, a box also called a car (Barrel), by a (Mainspring) (Barrel Drum), a drum and a drum cover (Barrel Cover) composition, and the use of square hole gear (Ratchet Wheel) drive to the center wheel and other gear, is the most important structure of clock operation and just like the human stomach bag, will eat in the conversion of food into energy, because this simple structure is easy to use, so since ancient times did not change.
The left wheel; right escapement and cowboys
When you hear the watch ticking sound like a metronome "and" tick "swing without stop, the second case also with the rhythm of rotation, let us immediately feel constantly fleeting moments. The rhythm like sound is due to balance (Balance Wheel) stress reaction to the messenger (Lever) produced by voice. A system is composed of an alloy made by gossamer (Hairspring) reaction caused by pushing the gem (Impulse Jewel Pin) a messenger (Lever), a perfect balance is usually at 225 degrees to 270 degrees swing swing, let the time forever life and growth in nature.
The main structure of the clock, in addition to the previously mentioned spring and balance, the main parts of the main gear middle let time work, which is like the human blood continuously transmitted over the power receiving box spring. The main train includes: (1) the center wheel, also called two times (Center Wheel or 2nd Wheel car); (2) the third, also called three car (3rd Wheel); (3) the fourth round, also called four car (4th Wheel); (4) the escapement, and it said the five car (Escape Wheel), these gears are respectively assume hoursminutes seconds when the transfer function and rhythm. Send power to the center of the mainspring screwing and third rounds, fourth wheel, escapement wheel, clips from the start of all power, and then to the wheel, and then a reaction to restore the position before the messenger, in this way, the entire operation process can be repeated.
On weekdays, we see pointers on watches, minutes, minutes, and seconds. How do they assign gears? When the spring provides the power to the center wheel, the center wheel turns at 60 minutes and 1 turns, and in the third round it starts to change, and then turns to the fourth, then turns at 1 turns at 60 seconds. So the minute display is generated by the center wheel axis, the second display is generated by the axis of the fourth round, the clockwise display, is located in an upper plate by connecting to the minute wheel. Most people will find some watch small seconds meeting at 6 o'clock or 9 o'clock, this is in accordance with the fourth round of the position to decide. The second is also design a drive gear system installed in the fourth round, the second hand position to transform.